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12 Class Chemistry PDF Notes

12 Class Chemistry PDF Notes


link to DOWNLOAD 12 Class Chemistry PDF Notes is given below...


These PDF notes contain given below chapters of 12 class chemistry
Surface chemistry
General principles and process of Isolation of elements
p-Block Elements
d-and f-Block Elements
Coordination Compounds
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acids
Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen
Bio molecules
polymers
chemistry in everyday life

12th Class Chemistry Notes

1. Solid State

2. Solution

3. Electrochemistry

4. Chemical kinetics

5. Surface Chemistry

 6. General Principle and Process of Isolation of the Elements

7. p-block elements

8. d-and f-block elements

9. Coordination compounds

10. Haloalkanes and haloarenes

11. Alcohols, phenols and ethers

12. Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids

13. Amines

14. Biomolecules

15. Polymers

16. Chemistry in Everyday Life

12th class chemistry notes contain notes on following topics i.e. solid state, solutions, electrochemistry, chemical kinetics, surface chemistry, general principles and processes of isolation of elements, p-block elements, d-and f-block elements, coordination compounds, haloalkanes and haloarenes, alcohols, phenols and ethers, aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids, amines, biomolecules, polymers, chemistry in everyday life.

Chemistry Videos

Solid State Chemistry MCQ Part 23

Solid State Chemistry MCQs

These are 20 selected MCQs from Solid State Chemistry which are very important and asked in various exams like AMU, KCET, MP CET, CBSE, Karnataka CEE, MP PMT, Kerala MEE, MP PET, AIIMS, BHU, IIT, EAMCET, NCERT, CPMT, AIEEE, CETMP, Pb PMT, AFMC.

MCQ-1.  In Solids, the constituent particles may be :

  Ions
  Atoms
  Molecules
  Either of the above three


MCQ-2.  In a Crystal, atoms are located at position of the :

  Maximum P.E.
  Minimum P.E.
  Infinite P.E.
  Zero P.E.


MCQ-3.  When identical spheres in the adjacent rows have a vertical as well as horizontal alignment in a way that each sphere has 4 nearest neighbours, This type of pattern is known as :

  Cubic Close Packing
  Body Centred Cubic Packing
  Hexagonal Close Packing
  Square Close Packing


MCQ-4.  The space occupied in BCC arrangement is :

  68 %
  60.8 %
  78 %
  74 %


MCQ-5.  Which of the following have HCP structure :

  Al
  Mg
  Ni
  Cu


MCQ-6.  Pottasium crystalizes in a BCC lattice, hence the coordination number of pottasium in pottasium metal is :

  8
  6
  4
  0


MCQ-7.  In CCP arrangement the coordination number of each sphere is :

  6
  8
  12
  14


MCQ-8.  The number of molecules in a unit structure of NaCl are :

  1
  6
  4
  3


MCQ-9.  The number of molecules of CsCl in a unit structure will be :

  1
  8
  2
  4


MCQ-10.  The total no. of 3 fold axes of symmetry in CCP arrangement is :

  1
  2
  4
  6


MCQ-11.  A match box exibits :

  Cubic Geometry
  Monoclinic Geometry
  Orthorombic Geometry
  Tetragonal Geometry


MCQ-12.  Which of the following is a molecular crystal :

  Ice
  Graphite
  SiC
  NaCl


MCQ-13.  Diamond is :

  Molecular Crystal
  Metallic Crystal
  Covalent Crystal
  Ionic Crystal


MCQ-14.  NaCl is a example of :

  Molecular Solid
  Metallic Solid
  Covalent Solid
  Ionic Solid


MCQ-15.  Schottky defect is found in which of the following :

  MgCl2
  TiCl
  KCl
  NaCl


MCQ-16.  Frenkel defect is found in which of the following :

  NaBr
  TiBr
  CuBr
  AgBr


MCQ-17.  Which of the following defect causes decrease in density of the crystal :

  Frenkel Defect
  Schottky Defect
  F-Centre Defect
  Interstitial Defect


MCQ-18.  Which of the following substance will conduct the current in Solid State :

  Iodine
  Graphite
  Diamond
  Sodium Chloride


MCQ-19.  On adding a little amount of phosphorus to silicon, We get :

  Insulator
  Mettalic Conductor
  n-type semiconductor
  p-type semiconductor


MCQ-20.  Semiconductors are derived from compounds of :

  Lanthanides
  Actinides
  p-block elements
  Transition elements


To learn more about Solid State Chemistry read our notes on Solid state chemistry...

12 Class Chapter 1- Solid State Chemistry

Solid State Chemistry

Solid: - 

        Matter which posses rigidity having definite shape &volume is called solid.

Types of solid:-

1.      Crystalline Solid :- Eg:- Metals And Non metals
2.      Amorphous Solid :- Eg:- Rubber ,Glass ,Plastic

Difference and Comparison between of characteristics

Crystalline Solid: - 

                           Contain regular arrangement having short range & as well as long range order.
Definite geometric shape, Sharpe melting point, they have definite heat fusion, they undergo clean cleavage, and they are true solid.

Amorphous Solid: - 

                         Containing irregular arrangement having short range order only, irregular shape, melting over range of temp, they do not have definite heat of fusion they undergo an irregular cut they are pseudo solid or super cooled solid.

Classification of crystalline solid:-

   1. Ionic Solid 
2. Molecular Solid
3. Covalent of network Solid
4. Metallic Solid

1. Ionic solid: - 

                     In these crystalline solids, constituent particle are positive or negative ion held together by columbic or electrostatic forces of attraction.
Eg:-NaCl, Mgo

12 Class Chapter 16 - Chemistry In Everyday Life

Chemistry In Everyday Life

Antagonists

                    Drugs that binds to the receptor site and inhibits its natural function is known as antagonists.

Agonists

               Drugs that mimic the natural messenger by switching on the receptor is called as agonists.

Antacids

               Its example is Metal Hydroxide.

Antihistamine

                        Its example is Terfinadine, Cimetidine. Histamine stimulates the secretion of pepsin and HCl in stomach.

Neurological Active Drugs

Tranquilizers

                       Chemical compound used for the treatment of stress or severe mental diseases. These relive anxiety, stress, irritability, depression, tension by inducing a sense of well being. Examples- Iproniazid,  Equanil, Barbiturates are hypnotic that is sleep producing agents.

Analgesic

                 These drugs reduce or abolish pain without causing mental confusion, paralysis and some other disturbances. Example- Asprin, Analgin, Paracitamol.
Narcotics Analgesics are Morphine, Heroine.

Antibiotics

                   These drugs inhibit the growth of microorganisms or kill the microorganisms. Example- Penicillin, Tetracycline, Imipenam, Meropenam, Ampicillin, Chloramphinicol.

Antiseptic

                  Furacine, Soframycine, Dettol (Chloroxylenol + Terpinol), Bithional.

Disinfectant

                     Apply to lifeless objects. Chlorine(0.2 to 0.4 ppm), SO2 in low concentration. 
NOTE: "0.2% solution of phenol is antiseptic while its 1% solution is disinfectant."

Antifertility Drugs

                                Drug used to control population. Example- Norethindrone, Novestrol.

Food Preservative

                                Prevent spoilage of food due to microbial growth. Example- Sodium Benzoate, table salt.

Gold Number

                      It is the calculation of the weight of the protective colloid in milligram to be added to 10 ml of gold solution to prevent its coagulation when 1 ml of 10% of NaCl solution is added to it rapidly.
 
For more online classes and degree notes visit  our website regularly to get updated with new topic everyday.

Discovery of Electron

Discovery of Electron

Sir J.J.Thomson and W.Crooks did many experiments with discharge tube for the discovery of electron.
Discharge tube have tube like shape made from glass with two electrodes (Cathode -ve and Anode +ve) in vacuum created by vacuum pump connected to discharge tube. High electric potential is applied between two electrodes.
9th class chemistry notes of structure of atom - Discharge Tube 
Discharge Tube
Air is bad conductor of electricity so vacuum pump is connected to reduce pressure to 0.02mm inside discharge tube currents starts flowing between electrodes and light is emitted. On further reducing pressure in discharge tube greenish yellow color fluorescence occur. As these rays emerging from cathode, Sir J.J.Thomson named them as cathode rays.
Deflection of cathode rays towards positively charged plate in electric field proves that these rays carry negatively charged particles.
These negatively charged particles are named as electrons.

Properties of Cathode Rays

1. Cathode rays always travel in straight line.
Production of Cathode Rays
2. Velocity of cathode rays and velocity of light are approximately equal.
3. On applying electric field in the path of cathode rays, cathode rays turn towards +vely charged plate that proves cathode rays are made up from negatively charged particles.
4. Cathode rays rotate light wheel placed in their path that proves cathode rays are made from particles having mass.
5. Cathode rays pass through thin metal foil and it gets slightly heated up by action.
6. These rays produce fluorescence at walls of glass tube.
7. Cathode rays ionize gases and also affect photographic plate.
8. When these rays strike any metal with high melting point (like tungsten W) they produces X-Rays.

Chemistry 11th & 12th Formula in pdf

11th & 12th Classes Formula in PDF

Below is the list of Chemical Formulas Resources

1. Chemistry formulas for Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic Part I

2. Chemistry formulas for Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic Part II

3. Chemistry Formulas for Structure of Atom Part 1

4. Chemistry Formula for Atomic Structure Part 2

5. Chemistry Formulas for Nuclear Chemistry (Radioactivity)

6. Chemistry Formulas for Chemical Bonding


To download Chemistry 11th & 12th Classes Formula in PDF click on the download button below or just copy and paste the below link in your internet browser.



This above link contain pdf of formulas of  classes 11th and 12th and also of B.Sc and M.Sc formula and symbols. Read our notes to get first class result. With our first class notes and your hard work, you create your signing future by get selected in IIT, PMT, PAT, AIMS, PET, NET, GATE and many more entrance exams........

Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Class 11 MCQ

Below is the List of all Chemical Formulas and Chemical Compounds

like inorganic compounds, biomolecules, chemical formulas, elements, alchemical substances, biomolecules, compounds, minerals, organic compounds, polyatomic ions, chemical compounds, chemical substances, alloys, alkanes.

What is Adsorption ?

What is Adsorption ?

Adsorption: - The accumulation of molecular species at the surface rather than bulk of solid or liquid is called Adsorption.

Mechanism of Adsorption

Inside the Adsorbent (in bulk) the force acting between the particles are mutually balanced but on the surface, the particles are not surrounded by atoms or molecules of their kind on all sides and hence they posses attraction force so particle stick on the surface of the Adsorbent.
The extent of adsorption increases with increase in surface area per unit mass of the adsorbent at a given temperature and pressure.

Heat of adsorption: - With increase in heat Adsorption process decreases.

Adsorption equilibrium: -

                                     As the molecules of the adsorb ate are held on the surface of the solid adsorbent.
Entropy decreases, i.e. DS is negative
For the process of adsorption to occur, DG must be negative which is possible only when, DS keeps on decreasing and TDS keeps on increasing till ultimately DH becomes equal.
To TDS so that DG = 0, this state is called adsorption equilibrium.

Types of adsorption

There are two types of adsorption

        i.            Physical Adsorption or physisorption: -  

                                                                         If accumulation of gas on the surface of solid occurs on account of weak vanderwalls forces is called physical Adsorption.

      ii.            Chemical Adsorption or chemosorption: - 

                                                                         When gas molecules or atoms are held to the surface (solid) by chemical bonds, the Adsorption is called Chemical Adsorption.

1)      Lack of specificity: - A given surface of an Adsorbent does not show any preference for a particular gas as the vanderwalls forces are universal.
2)      Nature of Adsorbate: - The amount of gas Adsorbed by a solid depends on the nature of the gas.
3)      Reversible nature: - Physisorption is reversible because adsorbate may be removed by decreasing pressure.
4)      Surface area of Adsorbent: - Physisorption increases with increase in surface area.
5)      Enthalpy of Adsorption: - Physical Adsorption is exothermic process but its enthalpy of adsorption is low (20-40 KJ mol-1).
1)      High specificity: - It is high specific because it occurs if there is some possibility of chemical bonding.
2)      Irreversibility: - As chemisorptions involve compound formation, so it is usually irreversible process.
3)      Temperature: - Chemisorptions increases with increase in temperature after saturation starts decreasing.
4)      Pressure: - it is also increases with increase in pressure.
5)      Surface area: - chemisorptions increases with increase in surface area.
6)      Enthalpy of Adsorption: - Enthalpy of chemisorptions is high (80-240 KJ mol-1) as it involves chemical bond formation.
                                 The variation in the amount of gas Adsorbed by the adsorbent with pressure at constant temperature can be expressed by means of a curve termed as Adsorption isotherm.
 
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