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Famous Scientists and their Inventions

Scientists and Their Important Research in the Field of Chemistry

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Given below is the list of scientists and their important research and inventions. These famous scientists or chemists perform many science and chemistry experiments which help in the development of Chemistry and Science. 

 List of Famous Scientists and their Inventions

List of Scientists
Research and Inventions
Ernest Rutherford
Bombardment of Atoms by alpha-particles
J. J. Thompson
Discovery of Electron, e/m of Electron
Eugen Goldstein
Discovery of Proton
James Chadwick
Discovery of Neutron
Louis De-Broglie
Wave Equation
Niels Henrik David Bohr
Atomic Model, Long Form of Periodic Table
Albert Einstein
Photoelectric Effect
Niels Bohr, Wolfgang Pauli and Friedrich Hund
Distribution of electrons
Heisenberg Principle
Uncertainty Principle
Becquerel
Radioactivity
Marie Curie
Radium
Francis William Aston
Mass Spectrograph
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev
Periodic Law, Periodic Table
Sidwick and Powell
Theory of Hybridisation
Louis Allred and Eugene George Rochow
Electronegativity
Robert Sanderson Mulliken
Electronegativity
Robert Boyle
Boyle’s Law, Relation Between P and V
Jacques Alexandre César Charles
Charle’s Law, Relation Between T and V
Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro
Avogadro’s Law, Relation Between V and number of molecules (n)
John Dalton
Dalton’s Law, Relation Between the Total Pressure and Partial Pressure of Individual Gases
Thomas Graham
Graham’s Law, Relation Between the Rate of Diffusion and Density (or Molecular Weight) of Gases
François Marie Raoult
Raoult’s Law, Relation Between Partial Vapour Pressure and Mole Fraction
Harold Clayton Urey
Heavy Water
Henry Louis Le Chatelier
Le Chatelier Principle, Effect of P, T and Concentration of Reactants on the System in Equilibrium


Pharmaceutical Chemistry MCQs Part17

Pharmaceutical Chemistry MCQs


Science Quiz by www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com

Pharmaceutical Chemistry MCQ
These are some of the random multiple question answers from Pharmaceutical Chemistry...

1. Sulfonamide metabolism in human body is carried out by:

Oxidation
Conjugation
Methylation
Acetylation


2. H2 gas is produced, when ______ is added to water:

LiH
CH4
NH3
H2S


3. _____ is Anti-hypertensive drug with a Tetrazole ring:

Clonidine
Valsartan
Carbapenams
Captopril


4. ____ blocks H2 receptors:

Mepayramine
Pyrilamine
Diphenhydramine
Cimetidine


5. In which of the following drug the pharmacological activity of the drug is associated with a specific optical isomer:

Aspirin
Adrenaline
Caffeine
Phenobarbitone


6. Oxidation of Galactose with concentrated H2SO4 yields the:

Gluconic Acid
Glucuronic Acid
Mucic Acid
Saccharic Acid


7. _______ functional group is responsible for the instability of the Aspirin:

Ester Functional Group
Alcohol Functional Group
Ketone Functional Group
Ether Functional Group


8. ______ is responsible for the synthesis of prostaglandins in the human body:

Arachidonic Acid
Stearic Acid
Lignoceric Acid
Myristic Acid


9. Chemical shift in the Nuclear magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy is expressed by:

mm/mL
Parts Per Million
Ampere
1/cm


10. Which of the following ultraviolet region is used in the drug analysis:

50-200 nm
200-400 nm
400-600 nm
600-800 nm



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10 Facts About Earth

Top 10 Interesting Facts About Mother Earth

10 facts about planet earth
Lets learn 10 interesting facts about mother earth...
1. Earth is the 3rd planet from the Sun.
2. About 2/3 of the mother earth is covered by water.
3. Age of planet earth is about 4.5 billion years.
4. Earth has a moon, which orbiting earth and completes one cycle in a month.
5. Earth is home to millions of species including humans and support life.

6. Earth has an atmosphere containing about 21% oxygen.
7. Earth is the only planet in the solar system that has life.
8. Earth orbit around sun, and completes one cycle in 365¼ days.
9. Earth is at 150 million kilometers from the sun.
10. Earth is NOT an exact sphere, the diameter around the equator is slightly larger than the diameter around the north and south poles.

Analytical Balance

Analytical Balance

What is an analytical balance?

what is Analytical Balance
Analytical balance is a lab-instrument used to determine mass of any matter very precisely. These analytical balances are very sensitive and expensive lab-instruments, and also upon the accuracy and precision of analytical balance the accuracy of lab-analysis result depends so handle these balances very carefully. Generally used analytical balances are balances with the capacity of 100 gram to 200 gram and the sensitivity of 0.1 milligram to 0.001 milligram. For any quantitative chemical analysis there is need of analytical balance for the weighing of sample for analysis and weighing of reagents for solution preparation. Analytical balance pan used to put sample on it is enclosed in a glass-fitted case, means analytical balance sensitivity requires that it to be protected by the draft shield or enclosure.
analytical balances

Definition of Analytical Balance

Analytical balance is a lab instrument with a scale to measure the mass to a high degree of precision. Generally used analytical balances are balances with the capacity of 100 gram to 200 gram and the sensitivity of 0.1 milligram to 0.001 milligram.

Where are analytical balances used?

Analytical balances are used in labs so also known as ‘Lab Balances’. In labs analytical balances are used for quantitative analysis like for measuring of sample, preparation of standard solutions etc.

How to weigh on an analytical balance?

These are the following steps to start weighing operation on an analytical balance-
  • Wear hand gloves.
  • Open the door of balance and place the container on pan of analytical balance.
  • Now, close the door of the analytical balance and wait for some time.
  • After some time value on balance display or scale get stabilizes, and shows some weight.
  • Now, press the tare button to get 0.0000 gram reading on display.
  • Add the sample until the required weight.
  • Now, close the door and wait for some time.
  • After some time value on balance display or scale get stabilizes, and shows some weight.
  • Record the net weight.
  • Clean the balance after use.

What is analytical balance uncertainty?

Analytical balance uncertainty is the margin of error in weighing, means when making measurements or weighing there is always an element of uncertainty in measurements or weighing. Determination of measurement uncertainty in analytical balance results is an integral part of the balance calibration.

Why should I calibrate my analytical balance?

Calibration of analytical balance is very necessary because balance calibration ensures that weighing balance is precise, correct, truthful, accurate, and satisfies different standards like ISO, GLP, and GMP. Calibration of analytical balances should be documented, as it specifies the quality of measurements. Documented calibration should be performed repeatedly, at some time intervals (like 3months+/-15days). 

How should I calibrate my analytical balance?

You should not calibrate your balance on your own, but it should be calibrated by third party. Means, calibration of balance is performed by third party authorized service technician.  This third party authorized service technician follow a standard procedure, and utilizes some calibration software to calibrate your analytical balance.

What is the analytical balance minimum weight?

Generally minimum weight of analytical balance is not fixed, means it is different for different balances and it depends on different factors like performance of load cell, location of balance, and surrounding environment. Minimum weight is smallest weight that can be measured with accuracy. If we try to measure below this minimum weight, we get results higher relative measurement uncertainty than the required weighing accuracy. So measurements below minimum weight cannot be trusted.
If you want to determine the minimum weight of your balance, you need to assess measurement uncertainty in the working environment.

Analytical balance accuracy and precision – what is the difference and how to test them?

Precision in balances refers to the closeness of two or more measurements to each other, means if we measure 5gram sample and its display shows 5.0001 in 1st time measurement, 5.0000 in 2nd time measurement, 4.9999 in 3rd measurement, and 5.0000 in 4th measurements so all these results (5.0001, 5.0000, 4.9999, and 5.0000) are very close to each other.
Accuracy in balances means how accurate result it gives so, Accuracy in balances refers to the closeness of a measured value to a known value, and Accuracy in balances is based on repeatability, readability, eccentricity and non-linearity. Accuracy of analytical balance can be tested using
  • A traceable calibrated weight also known as external reference weight having a known mass. And these weights are calibrated by third party and come with documented proof.
  • Accuracy of balance must be determined at its location of use.


Do you know ?

What is Analytical Chemistry ?

Analytical chemistry is all about, what an analytical chemist do in an analytical chemistry lab. And simply we can say that analytical chemistry is the branch of chemistry for qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis of compounds and mixtures by using different test methods and techniques like flame tests, chemical tests, precipitation, titration, chromatography, spectroscopy, separation, microscopy etc.
Definition of Analytical Chemistry- Analytical Chemistry is the branch of chemistry deals with the study of material examination to separate out them into different components and identifying all components and how much these components present in material. There are different analytical methods and techniques to perform these tasks... read more

Chemical Reaction Quiz Part16

  Chemical Reaction Quiz

Science Quiz by www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com
Source www.reddit.com
This Chemical Reaction Quiz part16 is based on chemical reactions.

1. Chemical reaction always gives-

Reactants
A change of state
A different substance
Water
All of the above


2. From given below, 4-balanced chemical equations, which is example of combustion reaction-

2Mg + O2 → 2MgO
2N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3
CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2
2Na + Cl2 → 2NaCl
2CH4 + 4O2 → 2CO2 + 4H2O


3. To balance a chemical equation, you should need to change-

Chemical Formulas
Direction of the arrow
Coefficients
Subscripts
Superscripts


4. In chemistry, if you try to balance a chemical equation by changing its subscripts, than you change the-

Atomic number
Atomic Mass
Mass of the reactants
Number of molecules of product
Identity of the compound


5. From given below, 4-balanced chemical equations, which is example of double displacement reaction-

NH4Cl → NH3 + HCl
Cd(NO3)2 + Na2S → CdS + 2NaNO3
2Mg + O2 → 2MgO
2H2O2 → 2H2O + O2
2N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3


6. Chemical Reaction, KClO3 → KCl + O2 is a-

Synthesis Reaction
Decomposition Reaction
Combustion Reaction
Single Displacement Reaction
Double Displacement Reaction


7. Which scientist first determined that the masses of the reactants and the products in a chemical reaction must be same-

Lavoisier
Galileo
Newton
Archimedes
Pasteur


8. Combination reactions (also known as Synthesis Reaction) always-

Involve an element and an ionic compound
Require oxygen gas
Use only one reactant
Form only one product
form only two product


9. In a chemical reaction, the arrow means-

A reaction is happening
The equation is balanced
The products flow into reactants
The two sides are equal
All of the above


10. In a decomposition reaction-

Energy in the form of light or heat is often released
Reactants are commonly two ionic compounds in the aqueous solution
one of the reactant is generally water
Form only one product
Reactants in the chemical reaction are usually a metal and a nonmetal


Chemical Reactions Quiz

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Chemical Reactions Quiz Part15

  Chemical Reactions Quiz

Science Quiz by www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com
Chemical Reaction Quiz
This Chemical Reactions Quiz part15 is based on chemical reaction.

1. Chemical Reaction, 2H₂O → 2H₂ + O₂ is a-

Synthesis Reaction
Decomposition Reaction
Combustion Reaction
Single Displacement Reaction
Double Displacement Reaction


2. Chemical Reaction, 8Fe + S₈ → 8FeS is a-

Synthesis Reaction
Decomposition Reaction
Combustion Reaction
Single Displacement Reaction
Double Displacement Reaction


3. Chemical Reaction, Zn + H₂SO₄ → ZnSO₄ + H₂ is a-

Synthesis Reaction
Decomposition Reaction
Combustion Reaction
Single Displacement Reaction
Double Displacement Reaction


4. Chemical Reaction, AgNO₃ + NaCl → AgCl + NaNO₃ is a-

Synthesis Reaction
Decomposition Reaction
Combustion Reaction
Single Displacement Reaction
Double Displacement Reaction


5. Chemical Reaction, CH₄ + 2O₂ → CO₂ + 2H₂O is a-

Synthesis Reaction
Decomposition Reaction
Combustion Reaction
Single Displacement Reaction
Double Displacement Reaction


6. Chemical Reaction, 2CO + O₂ → 2CO₂ is a-

Synthesis Reaction
Decomposition Reaction
Combustion Reaction
Single Displacement Reaction
Double Displacement Reaction


7. Chemical Reaction, Ca(OH)₂ + H₂SO₄ → CaSO₄ + 2H₂O is a-

Synthesis Reaction
Decomposition Reaction
Combustion Reaction
Single Displacement Reaction
Double Displacement Reaction


8. Chemical Reaction, Pb + O₂ → PbO₂ is a-

Synthesis Reaction
Decomposition Reaction
Combustion Reaction
Single Displacement Reaction
Double Displacement Reaction


9. Chemical Reaction, 2Fe + 6NaBr → 2FeBr₃ + 6Na is a-

Synthesis Reaction
Decomposition Reaction
Combustion Reaction
Single Displacement Reaction
Double Displacement Reaction


10. Chemical Reaction, 2H₂ + O₂ → 2H₂O is a-

Synthesis Reaction
Decomposition Reaction
Combustion Reaction
Single Displacement Reaction
Double Displacement Reaction



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