Tuesday, 15 January 2019
Tuesday, 2 October 2018
link to DOWNLOAD 12 Class Chemistry PDF Notes is given below...
These PDF notes contain given below chapters of 12 class chemistry
General principles and process of Isolation of elements
d-and f-Block Elements
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acids
Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen
chemistry in everyday life
12th Class Chemistry Notes
12th class chemistry notes contain notes on following topics i.e. solid state, solutions, electrochemistry, chemical kinetics, surface chemistry, general principles and processes of isolation of elements, p-block elements, d-and f-block elements, coordination compounds, haloalkanes and haloarenes, alcohols, phenols and ethers, aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids, amines, biomolecules, polymers, chemistry in everyday life.
Thursday, 23 August 2018
Solid State Chemistry MCQs
These are 20 selected MCQs from Solid State Chemistry which are very important and asked in various exams like AMU, KCET, MP CET, CBSE, Karnataka CEE, MP PMT, Kerala MEE, MP PET, AIIMS, BHU, IIT, EAMCET, NCERT, CPMT, AIEEE, CETMP, Pb PMT, AFMC.
MCQ-1. In Solids, the constituent particles may be :Ions
Either of the above three
MCQ-2. In a Crystal, atoms are located at position of the :Maximum P.E.
MCQ-3. When identical spheres in the adjacent rows have a vertical as well as horizontal alignment in a way that each sphere has 4 nearest neighbours, This type of pattern is known as :Cubic Close Packing
Body Centred Cubic Packing
Hexagonal Close Packing
Square Close Packing
MCQ-4. The space occupied in BCC arrangement is :68 %
MCQ-5. Which of the following have HCP structure :Al
MCQ-6. Pottasium crystalizes in a BCC lattice, hence the coordination number of pottasium in pottasium metal is :8
MCQ-7. In CCP arrangement the coordination number of each sphere is :6
MCQ-8. The number of molecules in a unit structure of NaCl are :1
MCQ-9. The number of molecules of CsCl in a unit structure will be :1
MCQ-10. The total no. of 3 fold axes of symmetry in CCP arrangement is :1
MCQ-11. A match box exibits :Cubic Geometry
MCQ-12. Which of the following is a molecular crystal :Ice
MCQ-13. Diamond is :Molecular Crystal
MCQ-14. NaCl is a example of :Molecular Solid
MCQ-15. Schottky defect is found in which of the following :MgCl2
MCQ-16. Frenkel defect is found in which of the following :NaBr
MCQ-17. Which of the following defect causes decrease in density of the crystal :Frenkel Defect
MCQ-18. Which of the following substance will conduct the current in Solid State :Iodine
MCQ-19. On adding a little amount of phosphorus to silicon, We get :Insulator
MCQ-20. Semiconductors are derived from compounds of :Lanthanides
Solid State Chemistry
Solid: -Matter which posses rigidity having definite shape &volume is called solid.
Types of solid:-
1. Crystalline Solid :- Eg:- Metals And Non metals
2. Amorphous Solid :- Eg:- Rubber ,Glass ,Plastic
Difference and Comparison between of characteristics
Crystalline Solid: -
Contain regular arrangement having short range & as well as long range order.
Definite geometric shape, Sharpe melting point, they have definite heat fusion, they undergo clean cleavage, and they are true solid.
Amorphous Solid: -
Containing irregular arrangement having short range order only, irregular shape, melting over range of temp, they do not have definite heat of fusion they undergo an irregular cut they are pseudo solid or super cooled solid.
Classification of crystalline solid:-
1. Ionic Solid
2. Molecular Solid
3. Covalent of network Solid
4. Metallic Solid
1. Ionic solid: -
In these crystalline solids, constituent particle are positive or negative ion held together by columbic or electrostatic forces of attraction.
Thursday, 9 August 2018
In this video we learn about SI System of units. We learn about 7 basic SI units, derived units, international system of units. In this video of Basic chemistry we get all information about SI units Which are used in physic and chemistry science experiments.
Watch this video below or at YouTube Link : https://youtu.be/eR6SCVLrVPE
7 SI Base Units
Base physical quantity
Symbol for quantity
SI units name
SI units symbol
Amount of substance
Prefixes for SI Units
Monday, 6 August 2018
Top 10 famous Indian Scientists and their Inventions
Salim Moizuddin Abdul Ali (12 November 1896 – 20 June 1987) was famous Indian scientist ornithologist and naturalist. Salim Ali also known as "birdman of India". Salim Ali was first Indians to conduct organized bird surveys across India and also he wrote many books on birds that simplified ornithology in India.
Srinivasa Ramanujan (22 December 1887 – 26 April 1920) was famous Indian mathematician. Srinivasa Ramanujan had practically no formal training in pure mathematics but still he made important contributions to mathematical analysis, infinite series, number theory, and continued fractions.
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (7 November 1888 – 21 November 1970) was famous Indian physicist. He won the 1930 Nobel Prize for Physics for his outstanding work in the field of light scattering. He discovered that when light pass through a transparent material, some of the deflected light changes its wavelength. This phenomenon is known as Raman scattering (Raman effect). In 1954, he got India's highest civilian award the Bharat Ratna.
4. Homi J. Bhabha
Homi Jehangir Bhabha (30 October 1909 – 24 January 1966) was famous indian scientist and nuclear physicist. Homi Jehangir Bhabha also known as "father of the Indian nuclear programme". He was founding director and professor of physics at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR). He also gives great contribution in Atomic Energy Establishment, Trombay (AEET) which is now named the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in his honour. TIFR and BARC under supervision of Dr. Homi Jehangir Bhabha was the basis of development of nuclear weapons for India.
5. Jagadish Chandra Bose
Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose (30 November 1858 – 23 November 1937) was famous indian scientist known for different fields of science, he was physicist, biologist, biophysicist, botanist and archaeologist. He made significant contributions to plant science and he also invented a device for measuring the growth of plants known as crescograph.
6. Satyendra N. Bose
Satyendra Nath Bose (1 January 1894 – 4 February 1974) was an Indian physicist. He is known for his work on quantum mechanics, Bose–Einstein statistics, Bose–Einstein condensate theory. In 1954, he got India's second highest civilian award, the Padma Vibhushan.
7. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (15 October 1931 – 27 July 2015) was most famous Indian scientist who also served as 11th President of India (2002 to 2007). A. P. J. Abdul Kalam was also known as “Missile Man of India”. He contribute as a scientist at Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). He was closely involved in India's military missile development efforts & civilian space programme and also contribute in the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology. He also played important role in India's Pokhran nuclear tests in 1974 & 1998. He got India's highest civilian award the Bharat Ratna.
8. H.G. Khorana
Har Gobind Khorana (9 January 1922 – 9 November 2011) was a biochemist. He got the 1968 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for research that presented the order of nucleotides in nucleic acids. He also received the National Medal of Science in 1987 by the President of the United States.
9. S.S. Abhyankar
Shreeram Shankar Abhyankar (22 July 1930 – 2 November 2012) was famous mathematician. He was known for his great contributions in the field of algebraic geometry, Abhyankar's conjecture of finite group theory.
10. S. Chandrasekhar
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (19 October 1910 – 21 August 1995) was an astrophysicist. He won the 1983 Nobel Prize for Physics for his work on the theoretical studies about structure and evolution of the stars.
Sunday, 22 July 2018
What Happens When You Eat Too Much?
Food is a thing that everyone like! But do you know what happens when you eat too much?
During thanksgiving, marriages, birthday parties’ people eat too much delicious tasty food. Do you know your stomach can rupture after overeating but good news is that your body gives you very strong signal to avoid that condition.
Stomach of an average human can occupy 1 to 1.5 liter of food before getting urge to vomiting. But your stomach can stretch 4 times to accommodate overeaten food before any stomach rupture can happen.
When you eat too much, your diet gets high in fat, protein, sugar and carbohydrates. Then your parasympathetic nervous system makes your body to focus on digestion and you feel lazy.
Now question is why people feel sleepy as well as happy after eating or overeating?
After eating meal, Digestion process starts as a result glucose level in body gets increase to maintain that level insulin hormone is released from cells of pancreas. And this insulin hormone also increases the level of melatonin and serotonin hormones and this increased level of melatonin and serotonin hormones makes you feel sleepy as well as happy.
Now there is another commonly asked question, why people get fat?
Fat cells in your body produces leptin hormone. This hormone tells your brain that you are no longer hungry. So you have to stop eating after getting alert from leptin. But people ignore alerts by leptin hormone and make habit of regularly overeating. Slowly brain gets resistance to leptin, which in turns need more fat cells to tell your brain that you are no longer hungry as quantity of leptin hormone is directly proportional to the amount of fat cells. So as a result you become overweight or obese
Friday, 20 July 2018
Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic MCQs
MCQ-1. What is SI unit of temperature :Fahrenheit
MCQ-2. Prefix 1018 is :Giga
MCQ-3. Derived SI Unit of Area is :cm2
MCQ-4. Which one of the following is a physical change :Burning of carbon in air
Burning of sulphur in air
Conversion of white phosphorus to red phosphorus
corrosion of metals
MCQ-5. Law of Multiple Proportions was proposed by which of the following scientist :Lavoisier
MCQ-6. Which pair of compounds illustrate the law of multiple proportions :H2S and SO2
FeCl2 and FeCl3
CuO and Cu2O
NH3 and NCl3
MCQ-7. The ratio of the rates of the diffusion of a given element to that of helium is 4. what is the molecular weight of the element :0.25
MCQ-8. The Law of Reciprocal proportions can be used to determine :Atomic weight of a gas
molecular weiht of gases
all of these
MCQ-9. The specific heat of a metal is 0.16 , its approximate atomic weight would be _____________ :16
MCQ-10. Atomic weight of a trivalent element of equivalent weight 9 is_____ :27
MCQ-11. Which property of element is always a whole number :Atomic weight
MCQ-12. A metallic oxide contains 60% of the metal. The equivalent weight of the metal is ________ :48
MCQ-13. Equivalent weight of an acid is _______ whose basicity is 3 :Molecular Weight/1
MCQ-14. 90 gram of water contains how many moles :6.02x1023
MCQ-15. which one of the following has maximum number of atoms :24 gram of C (12)
56 gram of Fe (56)
26 gram of Al (27)
108 gram of Ag(108)
MCQ-16. 18 gram of water contains :1 gram of hydrogen
2 gram of hydrogen
3 gram of hydrogen
4 gram of hydrogen
MCQ-17. volume of 4.4 gram of carbon di oxide at STP is________ :22.4 litres
MCQ-18. Avogadro Number of Helium atom weighs ______ gram :1
MCQ-19. A hydrocarbon containing 86% carbon. 448 mL of the hydrocarbon weighs 1.68 gram at STP, Then hydrocarbon is an __________ :arene
MCQ-20. The % of nitrogen in urea is about________ :18
Chemistry formulas for Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic Part I
Atomic Weight related Chemical Formulas
· Atomic Weight of an Element = Weight of an average Atom of that Element/ (1/12)x Mass of an element of C12
· 1 a.m.u. = 1.66x10-24g
· Atomic Weight = Gram Atomic Weight (GAW)
· 1 Gram Atomic Weight (GAW) of every element contains 6.023x1023 atoms of that element.
· No. of gram of an element = weight of element in gram/ Gram Atomic Weight (GAW) of that element
Methods of Determining Atomic Weight
i. Dulong and Pettits Method:
Applicable only for solid elements except Be, B, C, Si.
· Atomic Weight x Specific Heat = 6.4 (app.)
· Atomic Weight (app.) = 6.4/ Specific Heat (in Calories)
· Exact Atomic Weight = Equivalent Weight x Valency
· Valency = App. Atomic Weight / Equivalent Weight
ii. Vapour Density Method:
Applicable only for those elements whose chlorides are volatile.
· Valency of the Element = Molecular Weight of Chloride / Equivalent Weight of Chloride
· Valency of the Element = (2 x V.D. of Chloride) / (Equivalent Weight of Metal + 35.5)
Where, V.D. = Vapour Density
· Atomic Weight = Equivalent Weight of Metal x Valency
iii. Specific Heat Method:
Applicable only for Gases.
· Cp/Cv for monoatomic gases = 1.66
· Cp/Cv for diatomic gases = 1.40
· Cp/Cv for triatomic gases = 1.33
· Atomic Weight of Gaseous Element = Molecular Weight/ Atomicity
Where, Atomicity is number of atoms present in a molecule of a gaseous element. For example atomicity of Inert Gas is 1, atomicity of Ozone is 3, atomicity of H2 N2 O2 X2 is 2, and atomicity of Sulphur is 8.
iv. Volatile Chloride Formation Method:
· Atomic Weight of the Element = Equivalent Weight (Z) x Valency (x)
v. Isomorphism Method:
This method based on law of Isomorphism. According to law of Isomorphism, “Compounds having identical crystal structure have similar constitution and chemical formula”
· Atomic Weight = Equivalent Weight x Valency
· Weight of Element A that combines with certain weight of other elements/Weight of Element B that combines with the same weight of other elements = Atomic Weight of A / Atomic Weight of B
Molecular Weight related Chemical Formulas
· Molecular Weight = Weight of 1 Molecule of the Substance/ (1/12)x Weight of 1 atom of C12
· Actual Weight of 1 Molecule = Molecular Weight x 1.66x10-24g
Methods of Determining Atomic Weight
1. Diffusion Method:
Applicable only for gases.
Where, r1 & r2 is rate of diffusion of gases and M1 & M2 is Molecular Weight.
2. Vapour Density Method:
Applicable only for gases.
· Molecular Weight = 2 x Vapour Density
3. Victor Mayer Method:
Applicable only for volatile liquids and solids.
· Molecular Weight of a substance = 22400 ml of vapour of a substance at STP
Equivalent Weight related Chemical Formulas
· No. of Gram Equivalent Weight = Weight of the substance in gram/ Gram Equivalent Weight of the substance
· Equivalent Weight of an Element = Atomic Weight/ Valency
· Equivalent Weight of an Acid = Molecular Weight/ Basicity
· Equivalent Weight of an Base = Molecular Weight/ Acidity
· Equivalent Weight of a Salt = Formula Weight/ Total Positive or Negative Charge
· Equivalent Weight of a Reducing Agent = Formula Weight/ No. of electrons lost per molecule or Total change in Oxidation Number
· Equivalent Weight of an Oxidising Agent = Formula Weight/ No. of electrons gained per molecule or Total change in Oxidation Number
· Equivalent Weight of Radicals = Formula Weight of Radical/ No. of units of Charge.....
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